Session IV focused on the long-lasting effects of the War on humanitarian initiatives after 1919. Francesca Piana (Geneva) demonstrated how international humanitarian organizations dealt with the repatriation of prisoners of war who were then framed as refugees. She stressed how these organizations ambivalently perceived the refugees as passive victims, but also as the carriers of social, political, racial and sexual threats endangering national borders. Alexandra Pfeiff (Florence) focused on the Chinese Red Swastika Society in the 1920s and read its combined nationalist and internationalist ambitions and its faith-based fundament as distinct from the European Red Cross initiatives.
Francesca Piana | International and Transnational Initiatives on behalf of Prisoners of War and Refugees at the End of the First World War