Whenever diplomatic conferences have taken place after a large European war there was one major question: who should be invited to participate in it, and who should not?
This question has presented itself again and again to the former belligerents. Or, in other words and more precisely, why should one party be allowed to participate, and why should they not participate? Are there criteria for narrowing down the number of participants, and conversely for enlarging it? Dr. Stella Ghervas, Visiting Scholar at Harvard University’s Center for European Studies and Senior Fellow at the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine in Bordeaux, tries to find some answers on these crucial questions. In her speech, she focuses particularly on the Vienna order and then draws parallels with later moments.