Sicily was once one of the territories of Europe most fiercely contested in political terms and to this day remains one of the most culturally diverse. Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans and Carthaginians settled the continent’s former breadbasket, to be followed later by the Hohenstaufens, the Saracens and, most importantly, the Normans. The latter defined the history of Sicily during the Middle Ages under Roger II, William I and William II, leaving behind a unique heritage that remains evident to this day. Examples include the magnificent Cappella Palatina in Palermo and the monumental Monreale Cathedral in the city of the same name. This famous edifice is the final resting place of the Norman ruler William I, who lies in a sarcophagus made of a stone known as red porphyry. Because it was so rare, this stone was reserved for the Roman Emperors, and is extraordinarily hard and therefore difficult to work. Archaeologist Dr Elise Morero and art historian Dr Ruggero Longo have a lot of questions about stone and sarcophagi.