The Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha

Art and architectural history
By Rami Alafandi

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Khan al-ʿArasa, gate

Building history

Date and patron

The patron Ibshir Mustafa Pasha was governor of Aleppo from 1061–64 AH / 1651–54 AD and subsequently, a great vizier in the Ottoman Empire’s capital Istanbul for a short period.[1] He founded the building complex (see picture 1) in the northern suburb of Aleppo as an integral part of his charitable endowment (waqf) in 1063 AH / 1653 AD.[2] The waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha was heavily damaged in 2015.

This primarily commercial complex contained a caravanserai (khan), qaysariyya buildings (for artisanal and mercantile use), a market (suq) and many shops, a bakery (furn) and a coffeehouse (qahwa khana), as well as a public fountain (qastal) and a mosque (masjid). The building date and the names of the patron and the Ottoman sultan Mehmed IV (“Muhammad Khan”) are mentioned in the Arabic foundation inscription[3] above the entrance of the mosque’s prayer hall (see picture 2):

عمر هذا المسجد المبارك في أيام دولت [دولة] سلطان
البرين وخاقان البحرين خادم الحرمين الشريفين
مولانا السلطان ابن السلطان السلطان محمد خا
ابن السلطان ابراهيم خان خلد الله تعالى
خلافته إلى انقراض (الدوران) وذلك إنشاء
صاحب الخيرات مولانا الوزير أبشير مصطفى باشا
محافظ ولايت [ولاية] حلب بتاريخ أواخر شهر ذي القعدة سنة ثلاثة وستين وألف[4]

 

“This blessed mosque was built in the days of the reign of the Sultan
of the Two Lands and the Emperor of the Two Seas, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques,
Our Master the Sultan, son of the Sultan, Sultan Muhammad Khan,
son of Sultan Ibrahim Khan, may God Almighty eternalize
his califate until the earth stops [turning]. This [mosque] was built by
the Bearer of the Good Deeds, Our Master the Vizier Ibshir Mustafa Pasha,
Governor of the Aleppo Province, in the end of the month Dhu l-Qaʿda in the year 1063 [October 1653 AD]”.[5]

1. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, 3D model of the complex

The architect

The master architect of the entire building complex is unknown. Given characteristic features of individual structures, it seems apparent that there were one or more highly experienced specialists with regards to commercial, religious and domestic Aleppine architecture involved.[6]

2. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Mosque, inscription panel at the prayer hall entrance

Site and urban network

Situated in the western part of the historical northern suburb called “al-Judayda” or respectively “al-Jdayde”, the waqf complex is centrally located.[7] The structure occupies a prominent site forming an irregular rectangle separated from the urban fabric by straight or regular streets. David states in his monograph about the waqf of Ibshir Pasha that the location was purposely chosen and the functions were selected after observing the surrounding area.[8] The northern suburb has been the residence of craftsmen particularly for textile production and therefore more than 10 qaysariyya structures were built in the 17th century.[9] Originally, the site was an empty area belonging to the waqf of the Islamic school al-Madrasa al-Halawiyya.[10]

Since being erected, the waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha has been surrounded by many important buildings and neighbourhoods: The Ottoman bathhouse (hammam) of Bahram Pasha (991 AH / 1583 AD) lies to the south. To the east are Northern (al-Shimali) Street and ʿAbd al-Hayy Street, whose residents have been both Christians and Muslims.[11] To the north lie al-Hatab Square plus al-Sharaf Mosque, and the Hazzaza quarter, both of which were built in the previous Mamluk period; so too have al-Hazzaza’s inhabitants been Christians and Muslims.[12] Off the street that runs along the western side of the complex, the Churches Alley (Zuqaq al-Kanaʾis) leads inside the most important ancient centre of al-Judayda’s Christian neighbourhoods.

3. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, groundfloor plan 17th century

Original layout

Apart from today’s buildings, the only source available to learn about the original layout and some of the functions of the waqf complex is the waqf document, translated in modern times from the Ottoman language into Arabic by the Aleppine historian al-Ghazzi.[13] According to this, the complex was an assemblage of eight spatial entities, some of them comprising numerous structures or facilities (see picture 1, 3).[14] Due to climatic conditions and utilization, these are arranged such that open spaces preferably face north, thus following the traditional pattern in Aleppo.

The mosque (masjid) is located at the southeast corner of the complex. The Suq al-Nuwal (Looms Market) in the middle of the eastern side consisted of various shops, including a physician’s shop, and of a qaysariyya housing textile workshops included 13 upper rooms, 14 ground rooms, and an inner yard with a well. The Khan al-ʿArasa, devoted to selling cereals, contained 13 shops and a shop selling ghee and honey, is located at the north. A second qaysariyya, south of the khan at the west of the complex, consisted of 28 rooms on the upper and ground floor, an inner yard, and a well.[15] A dyehouse and a bakery are located at the southwest, plus, next to the southwest edge, a public fountain (qastal). Around the corner, at the south of the complex, is the coffeehouse (qahwa khana). A large third qaysariyya, called “Qaysariyyat al-Dulab”, with 27 rooms is found adjacently on the upper and ground floor. Between this qaysariyya and the mosque, 16 shops were lined up along the street.[16]

The waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha originally occupied a space of 6224 m2.[17] The size, number and function of individual components changed over time, especially in the 19th and 20th century, except for the function of the mosque.

4. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Mosque, main entrance

The mosque

The mosque (masjid) of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha is the smallest building of the complex (237 m2) and its two street facades face the intersection at the southeast corner (see picture 1, 3). This building is integrated into the exterior walls of the entire structure at an angle of 12 degrees to face in the direction of Mecca (qibla) towards the south-southwest. It consists of an inner yard, a domed prayer hall and a short minaret, as well as a Quranic elementary school for children (kuttab) and a public fountain (qastal).[18] The dome does not prominently indicate the existence of the mosque from the street.

The mosque’s main entrance is from the east (see picture 4). Besides the Ottoman foundation inscription, the door is accentuated with black, white and yellowish stonework (ablaq style), the two windows of the southern street facade are also decorated in this style. The courtyard facade of the prayer hall shows a less prominent entrance, which is flanked by two windows decorated with floral stone carvings. The rectangular prayer hall has a tripartite layout; it is divided by two arches into a square domed central part which contains the prayer niche (mihrab), and two rectangular, vaulted lateral parts. The ventilation was provided by two windcatchers (sing. badinj) located on the roof.[19]

5. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, interior

The coffeehouse

The coffeehouse (qahwa khana) of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha is a rectangular building (477.48 m2)[20], originally consisting of an inner yard at the north and a large covered hall at the south (see picture 1, 3). The hall’s long side is oriented along the southern street, from where it once was accessible. Presumably, each section of the coffeehouse was equipped with a central water basin.[21]

The hall has a rectangular ground plan. Based on a square middle room, it is divided by 12 pillars, all spanned by pointed arches, into 20 compartments of two different forms: two narrow oblong ones each on three sides of the central area (see picture 5) and two smaller square ones each in the adjacent corner areas. Between the pillar pairs that frame an oblong compartment stands a column each with octagonal shaft and multifaceted capital, which is formed by small geometric cells (muqarnas). Towards the side of the windowed entrance wall, the hall is only one bay deep. The courtyard side with its second row of pillars functioned as a kind of entrance portico, being once opened by four high pointed arches within the outside wall.

The central area is covered by a high dome. Supported by four massive pillars, it rests on muqarnas pendentives – triangular-shaped with tiered rows of geometric cells –, and is topped by a round lantern with small columns plus pointed cupola. The other parts are covered with elongated, flattened vaults and small domes according the respective compartment form (see picture 6). The ventilation system of the hall was realized by the high rising lantern in combination with various openings in the roof vaults. All these features give the interior of the coffeehouse its specific sumptuous character.

The street-front facade of the coffeehouse is the most decorated facade of the waqf complex (see picture 7). The lower zone with the entrance and 10 windows is decorated in ablaq style with alternating stripes of black and yellowish stone. Above this, there are two stylized foliate borders, of which the lower one is made of black, white and yellowish stone inlay and the upper one carved inside the masonry. The centrally located windows of the 6 upper zone openings are framed by broad horizontal strips of stone carvings with geometrical patterns and serrated ribbons (see picture 8).

6. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, roof

The public fountain

The public fountain (qastal) of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha once dominated the western facade of the waqf complex next to its southwest corner, at the intersection of the surrounding streets (see picture 1, 3). Directly opposite is the entrance to the Churches Alley (Zuqaq al-Kanaʾis) of the old Christian neighbourhood of al-Judayda.

The fountain niche is 3.40 m high and 1.20 m deep, with a large water basin jutting out onto the street (see picture 9).[22] The arched opening has a small pointed muqarnas half-dome and is decorated with a band of geometric muqarnas cells; above that, a cornice.

7. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, street facades of the Coffeehouse and the opposite Bathhouse of Bahram Pasha

Function in time and modifications

Most of the qaysariyyas in the northern suburb were specialized in textile manufacturing, continuing until the late 20th century.[23] Al-Ghazzi states that the large southern Qaysariyyat al-Dulab of the waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha contained silk looms for producing velvet and satin at the beginning of the 20th century.[24] Gradually, the use of manual looms decreased, being replaced my more modern means of manufacturing. In 1979, only 10 looms were left in the southern qaysariyya.[25]

In the northeast corner of the waqf complex, between the eastern qaysariyya and the khan, two grinders – one for grain, the other for lentils – were built in 1753.[26] David suggests that these were founded for the needs of the increasing population in the 18th century. In the middle of the 19th century, the khan’s function and that of the shops at its northern side was changed into storing and selling coal and firewood, whereas a part of its western side was sectioned off and transformed into shops.[27] During and after the First World War, many shops opened on the outer sides of the complex towards the streets. In addition, two bakeries were opened at the east.[28] The oldest bakery remained open until 1973.[29]

The mosque’s al-Hijaziyya prayer room was added around 1340 AH / 1922 AD.[30]

The coffeehouse was converted into a grinder and an ice factory at the end of 19th century. Around 1928, another part of the coffeehouse was used as police station. In 1958, the grinder and the ice factory were closed.[31] In 1976, the coffeehouse’s courtyard became a furniture workshop.[32]

According to David, the public fountain ceased functioning around 1982.[33] Later, it was converted into a small shop (see picture 10).

8. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, exterior facade, upper windows

Architectural and art historical importance

The waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha is one of the largest and most interesting building complexes erected in Aleppo during Ottoman times. The overall design of this multifunctional complex, contained within a single urban block, is almost unique. Nevertheless, the combination of a mosque on the southeastern side, and a coffeehouse and bakery on the southwestern side of a large commercial complex, has a parallel in the Safavid Mahyar Caravanserai near the Iranian city of Isfahan[34] – capital of the Safavid Empire, centre of silk production, and caravan city with important trading relations with Aleppo in the 17th century[35]. The entire arrangement is an outstanding example of town planning within the urban fabric of early modern Aleppo.[36]

The coffeehouse, or qahwa khana, is the most prominent and significant building of the waqf complex by architecture and decoration. Coffeehouses are common features in historic cities of the Middle East since the 16th century. At the time it was built, the coffeehouse of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha was probably one of dozens of similar public facilities in Aleppo, but it was unique for its size and architectural refinement – not only on a local level. In fact, it is one of the rare historic examples of a monumental Ottoman coffeehouse preserved from as early as the 17th century in a former major city of the Ottoman Empire.[37]

Another remarkable but smaller Ottoman coffeehouse preserved in Aleppo is the coffeehouse Aslan Dada, whose exact dating is unclear. Here too can characteristic features, including a domed central space flanked by oblong compartments, pillars and intermediate octagonal columns with muqarnas capitals be seen.[38] This indicates a specific type with regard to basic layout and decor in the architecture of Aleppine coffeehouses. David suggests that the specific plan of the coffeehouse of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha was inspired by the domestic architecture of Aleppo, in particular the most impressive type of reception hall (qaʿa) in large Ottoman courtyard houses with a square central area, domed and with basin, which is surrounded by three open sitting areas.[39] There is evidence to suggest that the coffeehouse hall had a wooden interior decoration, similar to a domestic reception qaʿa.[40] Thus, men who visited the coffeehouse got the chance to enjoy the luxury that could be found in a wealthy private house, but in a public place.

The street facade of the coffeehouse is unique for this kind of building regarding its openness, size and large-surface decoration.[41] Strikingly decorated exterior facades appear in the Mamluk period in Aleppo’s urban landscape, for example on the Friday mosque Jamiʿ al-Utrush (801 AH / 1398 AD) and the caravanserai Khan al-Sabun (“Caravanserai of Soap”, ca. 884 AH / 1479 AD), which has an elegantly decorated gate. Ottoman khans contained decorated interior facades as well as entrance gates such as Khan al-Jumruk (“Caravanserai of Customs”, 982 AH / 1574 AD) and Khan al-Wazir (“Caravanserai of the Minister”, 1094 AH / 1683 AD). As regards Ottoman houses, this was limited to interior facades, where, however, the same types of facade decoration such as contrasting striped masonry and inlay work of the ablaq style, as well as stone carving were most extensively applied. A characteristic example is the main courtyard of the Ottoman palace house Bayt Ghazala (17th – 18th centuries) located just opposite the waqf complex to the west.

Both the coffeehouse of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha and the earlier bathhouse of Bahram Pasha do not follow these Ottoman practices. Their extensively decorated exterior facades, facing one another on the street that runs east-to-west at the south of the waqf complex, produced the most decorated public street space in Aleppo (see picture 7).[42] Around the southwestern corner, the public fountain of the waqf complex was a continuation of the coffeehouse’s street facade (see picture 9).[43] The fountain’s high arched niche served as a visual counterpart of the large central dome of the coffeehouse with its high rising lantern. Thus, this ensemble created a distinctive landmark at one of the liveliest and busiest intersections of al-Judayda.

9. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Public Fountain ca. 1920

Economic and social importance

Considering that particular buildings and facilities were continuously adjusted, altered or added according to changing requirements, the waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha is an important witness of Aleppo’s urban economic and social development over the past several centuries. In the 17th century, its main function was to provide more commercial and social services to meet the needs of the local population, which included merchants and many craftsmen working in the then rapidly expanding field of textile manufacturing.[44]

The mosque of the waqf complex is one of the biggest and most elaborate mosques of its kind in the northern suburb in this time – despite its small size, complete insertion into the building block, and relative lack of visibility.[45] The mosque, as well as the public fountain, belonged to the facilities that did not contribute financially to the charitable endowment, but were funded from it.

The coffeehouse, as part of the revenue-producing economic or commercial facilities of the waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, was not meant to generate large sums of money like the khan or qaysariyyas[46], but rather to cater the ordinary man in the surrounding neighbourhoods. It is likely to have been installed for social communication purposes, benefitting from the existence of the hamman opposite, Bahram Pasha, which then functioned as another important hub of social life in the public sphere of the city. The coffeehouse’s front facade windows were designed to be at eye level to make a direct connection between those sitting inside and the passersby.[47] The courtyard side of the hall guaranteed a refreshing coolness due to the open arcades and fronted space with water basin, being enjoyed by customers of the coffeehouse especially during the hot summer season.[48] The sumptuous coffeehouse hall of the waqf complex of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha was actually one of the largest non-commercially used spaces of Ottoman Aleppo.[49]

10. Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, view towards the southwestern corner

Bibliography

David, Jean-Claude. Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā à Alep (1063/1653): Étude d’urbanisme historique. Avec la collaboration de Bruno Chauffert-Yvart. Damascus: Presses de l'Ifpo, 1982.
https://books.openedition.org/ifpo/7438.

———. La Suwayqat ʿAlī à Alep. Avec la collaboration de Fawaz Baker, Thierry Grandin et Mahmoud Hreitani. Damascus: Presses de l’Ifpo, 1998.
https://books.openedition.org/ifpo/7579.

———. Waqf Ibshir Pasha (1063/1653): Dirasa ʿUmraniyya wa Miʿmariyya wa Tarikhiyya. Translated by Mahmud Hritani. Aleppo: Dar Shuʿaʿ, 2007.

Emami, Farshid. “Coffeehouses, Urban Spaces, and the Formation of a Public Sphere in Safavid Isfahan.” Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World 33 (2016): 177–220.
http://www.academia.edu/30593202/Coffeehouses_Urban_Spaces_and_the_Formation_
of_a_Public_Sphere_in_Safavid_Isfahan
.

Gaube, Heinz. Arabische Inschriften aus Syrien. Beirut: Orient-Institut der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1978.

Al-Ghazzi, Kamil. Nahr al-Dhahab fi Tarikh Halab. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Edited by Shawqi Shaʿth and Mahmud Fakhuri. Aleppo: Dar al-Qalam al-ʿArabi, 1991–93. Orig. ed. Aleppo: Al-Matbaʿa al-Maruniyya, 1922–26.
http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-11788/page-7.

Raymond, André. “Les grands waqfs et l’organisation de l’espace urbain à Alep et au Caire à l’époque ottomane (XVIe–XVIIe siècles).” Bulletin d’études orientales 31 (1979): 113–32.

Al-Tabbakh, Muhammad Raghib (d. 1563). Iʿlam al-Nubalaʾ bi-Tarikh Halab al-Shahbaʾ. 8 vols. 2nd ed. Edited by Muhammad Kamal. Aleppo: Dar al-Qalam al-ʿArabi, 1988–92. Orig. ed. Aleppo: Al- Matbaʿa al-ʿIlmiyya, 1923–26.

ʿUthman, Najwa. Dirasat Naqaʾish al-ʿAhd al-ʿUthmani fi Muhafazat Halab: Al-Mabani wa-Shawahid al-Qubur. Aleppo: Mudiriyyat Awqaf Halab, 2010.

Watenpaugh, Heghnar Zeitlian. The Image of an Ottoman City: Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
https://books.google.de/books?id=utQo4ek-7BIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:9789004124547&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjribignsbYAhWQ-6QKHXSgCxQQ6AEIJzAA#v=onepage&q&f=true.

Nachweise

[1] Al-Tabbakh, Iʿlam al-Nubalaʾ, 3:212–13; cf. David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 64.
[2] Al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:402–04.
[3] There are two foundation inscriptions with the same content, one in Arabic and one in the Ottoman language. See David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 97–98 and ph. 2, 3/pl. 14; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 168 and ph. 2, 3/pl. 14;ʿUthman, Dirasat Naqaʾish, 259–61.
[4] Gaube, Arabische Inschriften, 40.
[5] Translated by the author.
[6] See David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 57–59; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 83–85.
[7] See David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, pl. 29, 30; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, pl. 29, 30.
[8] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 67; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 95.
[9] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 65; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 92.
[10] Al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:204.
[11] Al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:372, 401.
[12] Al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:374.
[13] See al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:402–04.
[14] See David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 5–7; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 14–16.
[15] Al-Ghazzi speaks of two qaysariyyas but there was only one.
[16] David concludes that the number of the original shops was only 13 not 16; see David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 25; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 41.
[17] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 6; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 15.
[18] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 28–31; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 44–49.
[19] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 29; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 47.
[20] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 32; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 50.
[21] See al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:402; David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 37; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 58.
[22] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 27; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 43.
[23] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 16; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 27.
[24] Al-Ghazzi, Nahr al-Dhahab, 2:402.
[25] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 82; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 113.
[26] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 23; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 37.
[27] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 75; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 104.
[28] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 76; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 106.
[29] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 23; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 38.
[30] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 98; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 130.
[31] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 75–77; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 105–08.
[32] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 82; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 113.
[33] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 27; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 43.
[34] See Emami, “Coffeehouses, Urban Spaces,” 202-03.
[35] See Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City, 176.
[36] Raymond, “Grands waqfs,” 120.
[37] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 37; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 58; Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City, 162.
[38] David, La Suwayqat ʿAlī, 108–12 and 184, pl. 14a.
[39] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 39; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 60.
[40] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 38; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 58.
[41] Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City, 164.
[42] Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City, 164.
[43] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 27; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 43.
[44] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 67; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 95.
[45] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 31; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 49.
[46] See David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 65; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 92.
[47] Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City, 164.
[48] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 37; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 58.
[49] David, Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā, 35; David, Waqf Ibshir Pasha, 54.

Bibliography

David, Jean-Claude. Le waqf d’Ipšīr Pāšā à Alep (1063/1653): Étude d’urbanisme historique. Avec la collaboration de Bruno Chauffert-Yvart. Damascus: Presses de l'Ifpo, 1982.
https://books.openedition.org/ifpo/7438.

———. La Suwayqat ʿAlī à Alep. Avec la collaboration de Fawaz Baker, Thierry Grandin et Mahmoud Hreitani. Damascus: Presses de l’Ifpo, 1998.
https://books.openedition.org/ifpo/7579.

———. Waqf Ibshir Pasha (1063/1653): Dirasa ʿUmraniyya wa Miʿmariyya wa Tarikhiyya. Translated by Mahmud Hritani. Aleppo: Dar Shuʿaʿ, 2007.

Emami, Farshid. “Coffeehouses, Urban Spaces, and the Formation of a Public Sphere in Safavid Isfahan.” Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World 33 (2016): 177–220.
http://www.academia.edu/30593202/Coffeehouses_Urban_Spaces_and_the_Formation_
of_a_Public_Sphere_in_Safavid_Isfahan
.

Gaube, Heinz. Arabische Inschriften aus Syrien. Beirut: Orient-Institut der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1978.

Al-Ghazzi, Kamil. Nahr al-Dhahab fi Tarikh Halab. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Edited by Shawqi Shaʿth and Mahmud Fakhuri. Aleppo: Dar al-Qalam al-ʿArabi, 1991–93. Orig. ed. Aleppo: Al-Matbaʿa al-Maruniyya, 1922–26.
http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-11788/page-7.

Raymond, André. “Les grands waqfs et l’organisation de l’espace urbain à Alep et au Caire à l’époque ottomane (XVIe–XVIIe siècles).” Bulletin d’études orientales 31 (1979): 113–32.

Al-Tabbakh, Muhammad Raghib (d. 1563). Iʿlam al-Nubalaʾ bi-Tarikh Halab al-Shahbaʾ. 8 vols. 2nd ed. Edited by Muhammad Kamal. Aleppo: Dar al-Qalam al-ʿArabi, 1988–92. Orig. ed. Aleppo: Al- Matbaʿa al-ʿIlmiyya, 1923–26.

ʿUthman, Najwa. Dirasat Naqaʾish al-ʿAhd al-ʿUthmani fi Muhafazat Halab: Al-Mabani wa-Shawahid al-Qubur. Aleppo: Mudiriyyat Awqaf Halab, 2010.

Watenpaugh, Heghnar Zeitlian. The Image of an Ottoman City: Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
https://books.google.de/books?id=utQo4ek-7BIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:9789004124547&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjribignsbYAhWQ-6QKHXSgCxQQ6AEIJzAA#v=onepage&q&f=true.